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Patents grant property rights on new and useful inventions, allowing the patent holder to prevent others from using, making, or selling that invention without permission for a limited time. U.S. patents are permitted by the U.S. Constitution and are designed to promote scientific progress and invention. By allowing inventors to profit from licensing or selling their patent rights, inventors can recoup their research and development costs and benefit financially from their inventing efforts. There are three main types of patents utility, plant, and design. Utility and plant patents can last up to 20 years, while design patents can last up to 14 years. When a patent expires, the patented material enters the public domain, making it free to use by anyone without a license. U.S. patents are issued by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO).

U.S. Patent No. 11,223,673 entitled “Multi-Client/Multi-Server Managing Method and System with a Routine of Rejection of Already Connected Clients for Balancing the System” issued January 11, 2022 to ABB Schweiz AG of Baden, China. Invented by Filippo Vernia of La Spezia, Italy; Andrea Scarponi of San Feliciano—Magione, Italy; Antonio Pace of Florence, Italy and Emanuele Pancani of Lastra a Signa, Italy. Abstract: The method comprises the following steps: connecting each client (5) to a respective one of said servers (3) and establishing a data communication between each client (5) and the respective server (3), thus forming a multi-client/multi-server network; 5 calculating a figure of merit for rejection (FoMR) for at least one client (5) con-nected to at least one of said servers (3), each figure of merit for rejection (FoMR) determining a probability of rejection of the relevant client (5) by the server (3); rejecting at least one client (5), which is connected to a server (3), and placing 10 said client in a non-connected condition; wherein the client to be rejected is selected on the basis of the figure of merit for rejection (FoMR); connecting the rejected client (5) to a server (3) again.